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Swiss method erfahrung

swiss method erfahrung

4. Nov. In Wahrheit handelt es sich bei dem Schreiben um Werbung für den Online- Handel mit binären Optionen. Mit der vorgestellten „Swiss Method“. 7. Aug. In dieser Rezension Die Swiss Methode legen wir Beweise vor, dass Die Swiss Methode ist eine der vielen Versionen einer Review Date. Haben Sie schon von der Swiss Methode gehört? Lesen Sie über unsere Erfahrungen ganz aufmerksam bevor Sie es ausprobieren!.

Once you work your way back to the start of the fourth round, the fourth round is complete. Cut the yarn, leaving a tail measuring 2 inches 5 cm long.

Pull this tail through the loop on your hook to fasten off the work. You can end your project here or continue on until your work reaches its desired size.

If you choose to continue on, repeat rounds three and four around the perimeter of the work until you are satisfied with the final size. When you finish, weave the excess tails into the back stitches of your work to hide them.

Work a foundation chain. Attach the yarn to your hook using a slip knot , then work a foundation of chain stitches in multiples of In other words, the foundation chain can consist of 10 chains, 20 chains, 30 chains, 40 chains, 50 chains, etc.

The length of your foundation chain will be the final length of your project. At the end of your foundation chain, work two more chain stitches to serve as a turning chain for your next row.

Half double crochet at the start of the next row. Half double crochet once into the second chain from your hook.

When counting chains, do not count the loop currently on your hook. Create the first shell. To create the first shell of your first official row, you will need to work a series of treble crochets and half double crochets.

Skip four chains in your foundation. Work nine treble crochets into the fifth chain. Skip another four chains in your foundation. Half double crochet once into the next chain.

Work additional shells across the row. Repeat the previous step across the full length of your foundation, stopping only once you reach the end of the row.

This completes the first official row. If desired, you can change yarn colors after the end of your first row. Doing so is not necessary, though. Front post treble crochet at the start of the next row.

Chain three, then work one treble crochet into the front posts of each of the next four stitches. Keep the last loop of each treble crochet on the hook.

After the last treble crochet, yarn over the hook and pull the yarn-over through all the loops on the hook. Work one half double crochet into the next stitch in the previous row.

Create treble clusters along the entire row. Work a series of treble clusters, chains, and half double crochets across the entire second row, stopping before you work the last five stitches.

Work a front post treble crochet into each of the next four stitches, leaving the last loop on the hook after each one.

Half double crochet once, then work another four treble crochets across the next four stitches. Leave the last loop on the hook after each stitch, then yarn over and pull it through the all the loops on your hook after the final stitch.

This counts as a nine-stitch shell cluster. Work one half double crochet into the front post of the next stitch.

Work a partial cluster at the end of the row. Chain four, then work a treble crochet into the front posts of each of the final five stitches in the row, keeping the last loop on the hook for each one.

Yarn over and pull through all the loops after completing the last one. This completes the row. Chain four, then turn the work over.

Work treble clusters and half double crochets across the third row. Work four treble crochets into the top of the first cluster, then half double crochet once into the next half double crochet.

Create connecting shells across the entire row, stopping just before the last cluster. For each connecting shell: Work nine treble crochets into the center of the next cluster.

Half double crochet into the next half double crochet. For the final cluster of the row, work five treble crochets into the top of the cluster.

You can change colors at the end of this row or keep going with the color you currently have. At the end of this row, you should also chain one and turn the work over.

Create nine-stitch cluster shells across the fourth row. Work one half double crochet into the first stitch, then work a series of nine-stitch cluster shells across the rest of the row until you reach the end and finish the row.

Work a nine-stitch shell cluster over the next nine stitches, following the same procedure used to make the nine-stitch shell clusters in your second row.

Work one half double crochet into the next stitch. At the very end of the row, chain one and turn the work over. Connect the shells across the fifth row.

At the start of the fifth row, half double crochet into the first half double crochet stitch. Work across the rest of the row using a series of treble crochets and half double crochets.

Work nine treble crochets into the center of the first cluster. Continue until you reach the end of the row.

If desired, change colors at the end of this row. Repeat rows two, three, four, and five until the project reaches your desired width. When your project is finished, cut the yarn, leaving a tail 2 to 4 inches 5 to 10 cm long.

Pull this tail through the loop on your hook to fasten off and finish the work. Weave the secured tail into the back of the work to hide it.

You just keep crocheting, adding rows or rounds until it reaches the desired size. Not Helpful 0 Helpful 1. In order to make these pieces correctly, I suggest you look at a tutorial on how to make fabric patterns for clothing.

In the end, you sew the pieces together. Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered.

Already answered Not a question Bad question Other. Crochet Stitches In other languages: Did this article help you? Cookies make wikiHow better.

By continuing to use our site, you agree to our cookie policy. He secured the Archbishopric of Cologne for his brother Ernest in , and this dignity remained in the possession of the family for nearly years.

In he abdicated in favour of his son Maximilian I , and retired to a monastery, where he died in Maximilian I found the duchy encumbered with debt and filled with disorder, but ten years of his vigorous rule effected a remarkable change.

In spite of subsequent reverses, Maximilian retained these gains at the Peace of Westphalia in During the later years of this war Bavaria, especially the northern part, suffered severely.

In the Swedes invaded, and when Maximilian violated the treaty of Ulm in , the French and the Swedes ravaged the land. After repairing this damage to some extent, the elector died at Ingolstadt in September , leaving his duchy much stronger than he had found it.

The recovery of the Upper Palatinate made Bavaria compact; the acquisition of the electoral vote made it influential; and the duchy was able to play a part in European politics which internal strife had rendered impossible for the past four hundred years.

The international position won by Maximilian I adds to the ducal house, on Bavaria itself its effect during the next two centuries were most dubious.

In , moreover, he again called a meeting of the diet, which had been suspended since His good work, however, was largely undone by his son Maximilian II Emanuel — , whose far-reaching ambition set him warring against the Ottoman Empire and, on the side of France, in the great struggle of the Spanish succession.

The death of the emperor Charles VI proved his opportunity: The price he had to pay, however, was the occupation of Bavaria itself by Austrian troops; and, though the invasion of Bohemia in by Frederick II of Prussia enabled him to return to Munich, at his death on 20 January it was left to his successor to make what terms he could for the recovery of his dominions.

He was a man of enlightenment , did much to encourage agriculture, industries and the exploitation of the mineral wealth of the country, founded the Academy of Sciences at Munich, and abolished the Jesuit censorship of the press.

On 30 December , when he died, the Bavarian line of the Wittelsbachs became extinct, and the succession passed to Charles Theodore , the elector palatine.

So great an accession of strength to a neighbouring state, whose ambition she had just reason to fear, proved intolerable to Austria, which laid claim to a number of lordships — forming one-third of the whole Bavarian inheritance — as lapsed fiefs of the Bohemian, Austrian and imperial crowns.

These were at once occupied by Austrian troops, with the secret consent of Charles Theodore himself, who was without legitimate heirs, and wished to obtain from the emperor the elevation of his natural children to the status of princes of the Empire.

For Bavaria itself Charles Theodore did less than nothing. For the rest, the enlightened internal policy of his predecessor was abandoned. The funds of the suppressed Society of Jesus , which Maximilian Joseph had destined for the reform of the educational system of the country, were used to endow a province of the knights of St John of Jerusalem , for the purpose of combating the enemies of the faith.

The government was inspired by the narrowest clericalism, which culminated in the attempt to withdraw the Bavarian bishops from the jurisdiction of the great German metropolitans and place them directly under that of the pope.

On the eve of the Revolution the intellectual and social condition of Bavaria remained that of the Middle Ages. In , French revolutionary armies overran the Palatinate; in the French, under Moreau , invaded Bavaria itself and advanced to Munich where they were received with joy by the long-suppressed Liberals, and laid siege to Ingolstadt.

Charles Theodore , who had done nothing to prevent wars or to resist the invasion, fled to Saxony and abandoned a regency whose members signed a convention with Moreau, by which he granted an armistice in return for a heavy contribution 7 September Between the French and the Austrians, Bavaria was now in a bad situation.

Even before the death of Charles Theodore on 16 February the Austrians had again occupied the country, in preparation for renewing the war with France.

Though both he and his all-powerful minister, Maximilian von Montgelas sympathized more with France than Austria, the state of the Bavarian finances and the fact that the Bavarian troops were scattered and disorganized placed him helpless in the hands of Austria.

On 2 December , the Bavarian armies were involved in the Austrian defeat at Hohenlinden , and Moreau once more occupied Munich. In view of the scarcely disguised ambitions and intrigues of the Austrian court, Montgelas now believed that the interests of Bavaria lay in a frank alliance with the French Republic; he succeeded in overcoming the reluctance of Maximilian Joseph and on 24 August a separate treaty of peace and alliance with France was signed in Paris.

The whole form a compact territory which more than compensated for the loss of her outlying provinces on the Rhine. Montgelas now aspired to raise Bavaria to the rank of a first-rate power and he pursued this object during the Napoleonic epoch with consummate skill, allowing fully for the preponderance of France — so long as it lasted — but never permitting Bavaria to sink, like so many of the states of the Confederation of the Rhine , into a mere French dependency.

By the 1st article of the treaty the emperor acknowledged the assumption by the elector of the title of king, as Maximilian I.

On 15 March he ceded the Duchy of Berg to Napoleon. For the internal constitution of Bavaria also the French alliance had noteworthy consequences.

Also, um endlich zu sehen, worum es geht, muss man bis zum Ende warten. Das haben wir auch gemacht, und das Einzige, wovon wir uns sicher waren, war die Tatsache, dass da etwas nicht stimmt.

Denn allein das Video bietet viel Material zum Nachdenken:. Im Video ist sein Gesicht nicht zu sehen, nur auf einem Foto an der Seite.

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Manu Es ist gar nicht so einfach, einen guten Broker zu finden. Beim Trading ist ja auch ein gewisses Risiko vorhanden.

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Work one half double crochet into the next stitch. At the very end of the row, chain one and turn the work over. Connect the shells across the fifth row.

At the start of the fifth row, half double crochet into the first half double crochet stitch. Work across the rest of the row using a series of treble crochets and half double crochets.

Work nine treble crochets into the center of the first cluster. Continue until you reach the end of the row. If desired, change colors at the end of this row.

Repeat rows two, three, four, and five until the project reaches your desired width. When your project is finished, cut the yarn, leaving a tail 2 to 4 inches 5 to 10 cm long.

Pull this tail through the loop on your hook to fasten off and finish the work. Weave the secured tail into the back of the work to hide it.

You just keep crocheting, adding rows or rounds until it reaches the desired size. Not Helpful 0 Helpful 1. In order to make these pieces correctly, I suggest you look at a tutorial on how to make fabric patterns for clothing.

In the end, you sew the pieces together. Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered.

Already answered Not a question Bad question Other. Crochet Stitches In other languages: Did this article help you? Cookies make wikiHow better.

By continuing to use our site, you agree to our cookie policy. He secured the Archbishopric of Cologne for his brother Ernest in , and this dignity remained in the possession of the family for nearly years.

In he abdicated in favour of his son Maximilian I , and retired to a monastery, where he died in Maximilian I found the duchy encumbered with debt and filled with disorder, but ten years of his vigorous rule effected a remarkable change.

In spite of subsequent reverses, Maximilian retained these gains at the Peace of Westphalia in During the later years of this war Bavaria, especially the northern part, suffered severely.

In the Swedes invaded, and when Maximilian violated the treaty of Ulm in , the French and the Swedes ravaged the land.

After repairing this damage to some extent, the elector died at Ingolstadt in September , leaving his duchy much stronger than he had found it.

The recovery of the Upper Palatinate made Bavaria compact; the acquisition of the electoral vote made it influential; and the duchy was able to play a part in European politics which internal strife had rendered impossible for the past four hundred years.

The international position won by Maximilian I adds to the ducal house, on Bavaria itself its effect during the next two centuries were most dubious.

In , moreover, he again called a meeting of the diet, which had been suspended since His good work, however, was largely undone by his son Maximilian II Emanuel — , whose far-reaching ambition set him warring against the Ottoman Empire and, on the side of France, in the great struggle of the Spanish succession.

The death of the emperor Charles VI proved his opportunity: The price he had to pay, however, was the occupation of Bavaria itself by Austrian troops; and, though the invasion of Bohemia in by Frederick II of Prussia enabled him to return to Munich, at his death on 20 January it was left to his successor to make what terms he could for the recovery of his dominions.

He was a man of enlightenment , did much to encourage agriculture, industries and the exploitation of the mineral wealth of the country, founded the Academy of Sciences at Munich, and abolished the Jesuit censorship of the press.

On 30 December , when he died, the Bavarian line of the Wittelsbachs became extinct, and the succession passed to Charles Theodore , the elector palatine.

So great an accession of strength to a neighbouring state, whose ambition she had just reason to fear, proved intolerable to Austria, which laid claim to a number of lordships — forming one-third of the whole Bavarian inheritance — as lapsed fiefs of the Bohemian, Austrian and imperial crowns.

These were at once occupied by Austrian troops, with the secret consent of Charles Theodore himself, who was without legitimate heirs, and wished to obtain from the emperor the elevation of his natural children to the status of princes of the Empire.

For Bavaria itself Charles Theodore did less than nothing. For the rest, the enlightened internal policy of his predecessor was abandoned.

The funds of the suppressed Society of Jesus , which Maximilian Joseph had destined for the reform of the educational system of the country, were used to endow a province of the knights of St John of Jerusalem , for the purpose of combating the enemies of the faith.

The government was inspired by the narrowest clericalism, which culminated in the attempt to withdraw the Bavarian bishops from the jurisdiction of the great German metropolitans and place them directly under that of the pope.

On the eve of the Revolution the intellectual and social condition of Bavaria remained that of the Middle Ages. In , French revolutionary armies overran the Palatinate; in the French, under Moreau , invaded Bavaria itself and advanced to Munich where they were received with joy by the long-suppressed Liberals, and laid siege to Ingolstadt.

Charles Theodore , who had done nothing to prevent wars or to resist the invasion, fled to Saxony and abandoned a regency whose members signed a convention with Moreau, by which he granted an armistice in return for a heavy contribution 7 September Between the French and the Austrians, Bavaria was now in a bad situation.

Even before the death of Charles Theodore on 16 February the Austrians had again occupied the country, in preparation for renewing the war with France.

Though both he and his all-powerful minister, Maximilian von Montgelas sympathized more with France than Austria, the state of the Bavarian finances and the fact that the Bavarian troops were scattered and disorganized placed him helpless in the hands of Austria.

On 2 December , the Bavarian armies were involved in the Austrian defeat at Hohenlinden , and Moreau once more occupied Munich.

In view of the scarcely disguised ambitions and intrigues of the Austrian court, Montgelas now believed that the interests of Bavaria lay in a frank alliance with the French Republic; he succeeded in overcoming the reluctance of Maximilian Joseph and on 24 August a separate treaty of peace and alliance with France was signed in Paris.

The whole form a compact territory which more than compensated for the loss of her outlying provinces on the Rhine. Montgelas now aspired to raise Bavaria to the rank of a first-rate power and he pursued this object during the Napoleonic epoch with consummate skill, allowing fully for the preponderance of France — so long as it lasted — but never permitting Bavaria to sink, like so many of the states of the Confederation of the Rhine , into a mere French dependency.

By the 1st article of the treaty the emperor acknowledged the assumption by the elector of the title of king, as Maximilian I.

On 15 March he ceded the Duchy of Berg to Napoleon. For the internal constitution of Bavaria also the French alliance had noteworthy consequences.

Maximilian himself was an " enlightened " prince of the 18th-century type, whose tolerant principles had already grievously offended his clerical subjects.

Montgelas was a firm believer in drastic reform "from above", and, in , had discussed with the rump of the old estates the question of reforms.

But the revolutionary changes introduced by the constitution proclaimed on 1 May were due to the direct influence of Napoleon.

A clean sweep was made of the medieval polity surviving in the somnolent local diets and corporations. In place of the old system of privileges and exemptions were set equality before the law, universal liability to taxation, abolition of serfdom , security of person and property, liberty of conscience and of the press.

A representative assembly was created on paper, based on a narrow franchise and with very limited powers, but was never summoned.

In Bavaria was again engaged in war with Austria on the side of France. The Tyroleans rose up against the Bavarian authority and succeeded three times in defeating Bavarian and French troops trying to retake the country.

So far the policy of Montgelas had been brilliantly successful; but the star of Napoleon had now reached its zenith and already the astute opportunist had noted the signs of the coming change.

The events of followed; in Bavaria was summoned to join the alliance against Napoleon, the demand being passionately backed by the crown prince Louis and by Marshal Wrede ; on 8 October the treaty of Ried was signed, by which Bavaria threw in her lot with the Allies.

Montgelas announced to the French ambassador that he had been compelled temporarily to bow before the storm, adding "Bavaria has need of France".

But with the collapse of France the old fears and jealousies against Austria were revived in full force, and Bavaria only agreed to these cessions treaty of Munich , 16 April under the promise that, in the event of the powers ignoring her claim to the Baden succession in favour of that of the line of the counts of Hochberg , she should receive also the Palatinate on the right bank of the Rhine.

The question was thus left open, the tension between the two powers remained high, and war was only averted by the authority of the Grand Alliance.

At the congress of Aix the question of the Baden succession was settled in favour of the Hochberg line, without the compensation stipulated in the treaty of Munich; and by the treaty of Frankfurt, signed on behalf of the four great powers on 20 July , the territorial issues between Bavaria and Austria were settled, in spite of the protests of the former, in the general sense of the arrangement made at Vienna.

A small strip of territory was added, to connect Bavaria with the Palatinate, and Bavarian troops were to garrison the federal fortress of Mainz.

Meanwhile, on 1 February , Montgelas had been dismissed; and Bavaria had entered on a new era of constitutional reform. This implied no breach with the European policy of the fallen minister.

In the new German confederation Bavaria had assumed the role of defender of the smaller states against the ambitions of Austria and Prussia.

Montgelas had dreamed of a Bavarian hegemony in South Germany similar to that of Prussia in the north. It was to obtain popular support for this policy and for the Bavarian claims on Baden that the crown prince pressed for a liberal constitution, the reluctance of Montgelas to concede it being the cause of his dismissal.

On 26 May the constitution was proclaimed. The parliament was to consist of two houses; the first comprising the great hereditary landowners, government officials and nominees of the crown; the second, elected on a very narrow franchise, comprising representatives of the small land-owners, the towns and the peasants.

By additional articles the equality of religions was guaranteed and the rights of Protestants safeguarded, concessions which were denounced at Rome as a breach of the Concordat , which had been signed immediately before.

The result of the constitutional experiment hardly justified the royal expectations; the parliament was hardly opened 5 February before the doctrinaire radicalism of some of its members, culminating in the demand that the army should swear allegiance to the constitution, so alarmed the king that he appealed to Austria and Germany, undertaking to carry out any repressive measures they might recommend.

On 13 October , his son Ludwig I succeeded him. Ludwig proved an enlightened patron of the arts and sciences, who transferred the University of Landshut to Munich, which, by his magnificent taste in building, he transformed into one of the most beautiful cities of the continent.

The earlier years of his reign were marked by a liberal spirit and the reform, especially, of the financial administration; but the revolutions of frightened him into reaction, which was accentuated by the opposition of the parliament to his expenditure on building and works of art.

In , the Ultramontanes came into power with Karl von Abel — as prime minister. The Jesuits now gained the upper hand; one by one the liberal provisions of the constitution were modified or annulled; the Protestants were harried and oppressed; and a rigorous censorship forbade any free discussion of internal politics.

On 17 February , Abel was dismissed for publishing his memorandum against the proposal to naturalize Lola, who was an Irishwoman; and the Protestant Georg Ludwig von Maurer took his place.

The new ministry granted the certificate of naturalisation; but riots, in which Ultramontane professors of the university took part, resulted. The professors were deprived, the parliament dissolved, and, on 27 November, the ministry dismissed.

Before his abdication Ludwig had issued, on 6 March , a proclamation promising the zealous co-operation of the Bavarian government in the work of German freedom and unity see Revolutions of in the German states.

To the spirit of this Maximilian was faithful, accepting the authority of the central government at Frankfurt and on 19 December the sanctioning of the official promulgation of the laws were passed by the German parliament.

But Prussia was henceforth the enemy, not Austria. In refusing to agree to the offer of the imperial crown to Frederick William IV , Maximilian had the support of his parliament.

The guiding spirit in this anti-Prussian policy, which characterised Bavarian statesmanship up to the war of , was Baron Karl Ludwig von der Pfordten — , who became minister for foreign affairs on 19 April His idea for the ultimate solution of the question of the balance of power in Germany was the so-called Trias , i.

Important reforms were now introduced, including the separation of the judicial and executive powers and the drawing up of a new criminal code.

In foreign affairs Schrenk, like his predecessor, aimed at safeguarding the independence of Bavaria, and supported the idea of superseding the actual constitution of the Confederation by a supreme directory, in which Bavaria, as leader of the purely German states, would hold the balance between Prussia and Austria.

Bavaria accordingly opposed the Prussian proposals for the reorganisation of the Confederation, and one of the last acts of King Maximilian was to take a conspicuous part in the assembly of princes summoned to Frankfurt in by the emperor Francis Joseph.

Maximilian was succeeded on 10 March by his son Ludwig II , a youth of eighteen. The government was at first carried on by Schrenk and Pfordten in concert.

This was signed at Berlin on 22 August , on the same day as the signature of the formal treaty of peace between the two countries. This was preceded, on 23 November , by the signature of a treaty between Bavaria and the North German Confederation.

By this instrument, though Bavaria became an integral part of the new German empire, she reserved a larger measure of sovereign independence than any of the other constituent states.

Thus she retained a separate diplomatic service, military administration, and postal, telegraph and railway systems. The treaty was ratified by the Bavarian chambers on 21 January , though not without considerable opposition on the part of the so-called Patriot Party.

Their hostility was increased by the Kulturkampf , due to the promulgation in of the dogma of papal infallibility.

The federal law expelling the Jesuits was proclaimed in Bavaria on 6 September and was extended to the Redemptorists in On 31 March , moreover, the bonds with the rest of the empire had been drawn closer by the acceptance of a number of laws of the North German Confederation, of which the most important was the new criminal code, which was finally put into force in Bavaria in The opposition of the Patriot Party, however, reinforced by the strong Catholic sentiment of the country, continued and it was only the steady support given by the king to successive Liberal ministries that prevented its finding disastrous expression in the parliament, where it remained in a majority till , and subsequently, as the Centre Party , continued to form the most compact party.

Ludwig II, whose passion for building palaces and near-total neglect of his governmental duties were becoming a serious crisis, was declared insane and on 10 June , his uncle, Prince Luitpold , became the regent.

The question of whether his death was self-imposed, accidental or the result of malicious conspirators remains unanswered.

However, it was reported at the time and today is widely accepted that it was a suicide. The BPP was a Catholic party that represented the Bavarian tradition of particularist conservatism, through which monarchist and even separatist sentiments were conveyed.

An attempt supported by a wide coalition of parties, to establish Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria , as a Staatskommisar with dictatorial powers in to counter the Nazis failed due to the hesitant Bavarian government under Heinrich Held.

With the rise of the Nazis to power in , the Bavarian parliament was dissolved without new elections. Instead, the seats were allocated according to the results in the national election of March , giving the Nazis and its coalition partner, the DNVP , a narrow two-seat majority due to the fact that the seats won by the KPD were declared void.

In , the Bavarian parliament was, like all other state parliaments, dissolved too. During the 12 years of Nazi rule, Bavaria was one of Hitlers favorite locations, spending much time in his residence at the Obersalzberg.

The KZ in Dachau , near Munich, was the first to be established. But Bavaria was also the scene of passive resistance to the regime, the most well known of this being the White Rose.

After the war, carefully chosen for this reason, the city became the location of the war crimes trials, the Nuremberg Military Tribunals.

While Bavaria had approximately 54, Jewish people living in its borders at the turn of the 20th century, by still 41, lived in the state.

By , this number had shrunk to 16,, and few of those survived the Nazi rule. In Bavaria lost its district on the Rhine, the Palatinate.

The destruction caused by aerial bombings during the war, in addition to the fact that Bavaria had to take in over two million refugees from the parts of Germany now under Soviet occupation, caused major problems for the authorities.

The Bavarian Party was founded shortly after the war. Its goal was to establish an independent Bavarian state. For a time, the idea that Bavaria might become independent again was seriously entertained by the Allied occupation authorities as a way to ensure that Germany would be unable to wage offensive war again, and also by Bavarians themselves in part because they preferred to blame the war and its result on Prussian militarism instead of their own support for the Nazis.

A union between Bavaria and Austria was also considered. With the onset of the Cold War, support for Bavarian independence quickly lost support both within Bavaria and from the Western allies, and the state became a part of West Germany.

The main task of those delegates was to draft a new Bavarian constitution, since the day-to-day running of the state still lay with the US authorities at this stage.

The new constitution was accepted by a public vote on 1 December , the same day the first post-war state parliament German: The only time the CSU was in opposition was between and At this time Bavaria was governed by a four-party-government under the leadership of the Social Democratic Party of Germany.

Bavaria is home to the only separatist party in Germany - the Bavarian Party. This party would like to have an independent Free State of Bavaria.

Horst Seehofer was quickly proposed as their successor. At a party convention on 25 October he was affirmed as the new Chairman of the CSU, and on 27 October he was elected Minister-President by the Landtag with votes from the Free Democratic Party , forming the first coalition government in Bavaria since The citizen initiative process for the total smoking ban was held on 4 July and passed by sixty-one percent of eligible voters in Bavaria.

The new smoking ban took effect on 1 August and could be the precedence for other German states to adopt the more total smoking ban.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Roman history of the territory, see Vindelicia and Raetia. Archbishoprics Mainz Cologne Trier.

His control of the Alpine passes and his position as an ally of the Avars and as son-in-law of the Lombard king - Desiderius , became so troublesome to the Frankish kingdom that Charlemagne determined to crush him.

The details of this contest remain obscure. Tassilo appears to have done homage in AD and again in AD, probably owing to the presence of Frankish armies.

But further trouble soon arose, and in AD, the Franks summoned the duke to Ingelheim and sentenced him to death on a charge of treachery.

The King, however, pardoned Tassilo who entered a monastery and formally renounced his duchy at Frankfurt in Gerold, a brother-in-law of Charlemagne, ruled Bavaria till his death in a battle with the Avars in , when Frankish counts took over the administration and assimilated the land with the rest of the Carolingian empire.

Measures taken by Charlemagne for the intellectual progress and material welfare of his realm improved conditions.

The Bavarians offered no resistance to the change which thus abolished their duchy. Their incorporation with the Frankish dominions, due mainly to the unifying influence of the church, appeared already so complete that Charlemagne did not find it necessary to issue more than two capitularies dealing especially with Bavarian affairs.

The history of Bavaria for the ensuing century intertwines with that of the Carolingian empire. Louis made Regensburg, the centre of his government and actively developed Bavaria, providing for its security by numerous campaigns against the Slavs.

When he divided his possessions in AD, it passed to his eldest son, Carloman , who had already managed its administration, and after his death in AD it became a part of the extensive territories of the emperor, Charles the Fat.

This incompetent ruler left its defence to Arnulf , an illegitimate son of Carloman. Mainly due to the support of the Bavarians, Arnulf could take the field against Charles in AD and secure his own election as a German king in the following year.

Resistance to these inroads became gradually feebler, and tradition has it that on 5 July almost the whole of the Bavarian tribe perished in the Battle of Pressburg against these formidable enemies.

During the reign of Louis the Child, Luitpold , Count of Scheyern , who possessed large Bavarian domains, ruled the Mark of Carinthia , created on the southeastern frontier for the defence of Bavaria.

He died in the great battle of AD, but his son Arnulf , surnamed the Bad, rallied the remnants of the tribe, in alliance with the Hungarians became duke of the Bavarians in AD, uniting Bavaria and Carinthia under his rule.

The German king, Conrad I , attacked Arnulf when the latter refused to acknowledge his royal supremacy but failed in the end.

Henry recognized Arnulf as duke, confirming his right to appoint bishops, coin money and issue laws. The Bavarians disliked Henry, who spent his short reign mainly in disputes with his people.

The ravages of the Hungarians ceased after their defeat on the Lechfeld AD and the area of the duchy was augmented for a time by the addition of certain adjacent districts in Italy.

At the same time, Carinthia was made a separate duchy, the office of Count Palatine was reestablished, and the Bavarian church became dependent on the king instead of on the duke.

Restored in AD, Henry proved himself a capable ruler, establishing internal order, issuing important laws and taking measures to reform the monasteries.

In consequence of his support of Pope Gregory VII in his quarrel with Henry, Welf lost but subsequently regained Bavaria; two of his sons followed him in succession: Both exercised considerable influence among the German princes.

Alarmed at his power, King Conrad III refused to allow two duchies to remain in the same hands, and declared Henry deposed.

Author Since: Oct 02, 2012