Er gab Zheng He den Auftrag, eine riesige Flotte zu bauen. Zwischen und wurden Schiffe neu gebaut bzw. überholt. Schiffbau, Schifffahrt und. Zheng He stammte aus der chinesischen Provinz Yunnan und wurde geboren, sein Name war ursprünglich Ma He. Er wurde als zwölfjähriges Kind. Zheng Hes Flotte auf einem Holzschnitt aus dem Jahrhundert. Schatzschiffe ( chinesisch 宝船, Pinyin bǎochuán) gehören zu den größten jemals gebauten Übersetzers Ma Huan über die Fahrten des Admirals Zheng He auf. Auch in.
Ma He was captured by the Ming armies at Yunnan in Eventually, he would gain the confidence and trust of the prince.
It is also recorded that he had great knowledge about warfare and was well-accustomed to battle. Over the next three decades he conducted seven of these voyages on behalf of the emperor, trading and collecting tribute in the eastern Pacific and Indian Oceans.
In , Admiral Zheng He traveled to Palembang to confer an official seal [b] and letter of appointment upon Shi Jisun, who was placed in the office of Pacification Commissioner.
In that post, he was largely responsible for the completion of the Porcelain Tower of Nanjing , an enormous pagoda still described as a wonder of the world as late as the 19th century.
On 15 May , the Xuande Emperor ordered the Directorate of Ceremonial to send a letter to Zheng He to reprimand him for a transgression. One theory is that Admiral Zheng He died in He adopted the eldest son of his elder brother, who was awarded a hereditary officer rank in the imperial guard.
The Yuan dynasty and expanding Sino-Arab trade during the 14th century had gradually expanded Chinese knowledge of the world: Zheng He was placed as the admiral in control of the huge fleet and armed forces that undertook these expeditions.
Wang Jinghong was appointed his second in command. Preparations were thorough and wide-ranging, including the use of such numerous linguists that a foreign language institute was established at Nanjing.
Zheng He generally sought to attain his goals through diplomacy, and his large army awed most would-be enemies into submission. For example, he defeated Chen Zuyi , one of the most feared and respected pirate captains, and returned him back to China for execution.
In , the Yongle Emperor died. His successor, the Hongxi Emperor r. Some far-off countries pay their tribute to me at much expense and through great difficulties, all of which are by no means my own wish.
Messages should be forwarded to them to reduce their tribute so as to avoid high and unnecessary expenses on both sides. They further violated longstanding Confucian principles.
Zheng He led seven expeditions to the "Western" or Indian Ocean. Zheng He brought back to China many trophies and envoys from more than thirty kingdoms — including King Vira Alakeshwara of Ceylon , who came to China as a captive to apologize to the Emperor for offenses against his mission.
We have traversed more than , li of immense water spaces and have beheld in the ocean huge waves like mountains rising in the sky, and we have set eyes on barbarian regions far away hidden in a blue transparency of light vapors, while our sails, loftily unfurled like clouds day and night, continued their course [as rapidly] as a star, traversing those savage waves as if we were treading a public thoroughfare Each of these maps is positioned at a different orientation to fit with the ocean currents and winds required of a sailing chart, rather than a formal map.
The analysis also suggests that Arabic-speaking pilots with a detailed knowledge of the African coast were involved in the cartography. There is little attempt to provide an accurate 2-D representation; instead the sailing instructions are given using a point compass system with a Chinese symbol for each point, together with a sailing time or distance, which takes account of the local currents and winds.
Sometimes depth soundings are also provided. It also shows bays, estuaries, capes and islands, ports and mountains along the coast, important landmarks such as pagodas and temples, and shoal rocks.
There are also fifty observations of stellar altitude. According to medieval Chinese sources, Zheng He commanded seven expeditions.
The expedition consisted of 27, men and a fleet of 62 treasure ships supported by approximately smaller ships. Six more expeditions took place, from to , with fleets of comparable size.
Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta both described multi-masted ships carrying to 1, passengers in their translated accounts. The Yangtze river, with its calmer waters, may have been navigable by these treasure ships.
Zheng He, a court eunuch, would not have had the privilege in rank to command the largest of these ships, seaworthy or not.
In the decades after the last voyage, Imperial officials minimized the importance of Zheng He and his expeditions throughout the many regnal and dynastic histories they compiled.
Starting in the early 15th century, China experienced increasing pressure from the surviving Yuan Mongols from the north. The relocation of the capital north to Beijing exacerbated this threat dramatically.
At considerable expense, China launched annual military expeditions from Beijing to weaken the Mongolians.
The expenditures necessary for these land campaigns directly competed with the funds necessary to continue naval expeditions. The Mongolians wiped out the Chinese army and captured the emperor.
This battle had two salient effects. First, it demonstrated the clear threat posed by the northern nomads. Second, the Mongols caused a political crisis in China when they released the emperor after his half-brother had already ascended and declared the new Jingtai era.
Not until and the restoration of the former emperor did political stability return. Upon his return to power, China abandoned the strategy of annual land expeditions and instead embarked upon a massive and expensive expansion of the Great Wall of China.
In this environment, funding for naval expeditions simply did not happen. However, missions from Southeast Asia continued to arrive for decades.
Depending on local conditions, they could reach such frequency that the court found it necessary to restrict them: Sultan Mansur Shah r.
The letter requested the hand of an imperial daughter in marriage. Malay but not Chinese annals record that, in the year , a princess named Hang Li Po or Hang Liu was sent from China to marry the sultan.
The princess came with high-ranking young men and a few hundred handmaidens as her entourage. They eventually settled in Bukit Cina.
It is believed that a significant number of them married into the local populace, creating the descendants now known as the Peranakan.
Baba for the men and Nyonya for the women. In , the Indonesian Islamic leader and scholar Hamka credited Zheng He with an important role in the development of Islam in Indonesia.
These Muslims allegedly followed the Hanafi school in the Chinese language. The Chinese trader Sun Long even supposedly adopted the son of the king of Majapahit and his Chinese wife, a son who went on to become Raden Patah.
Modern historians point out that Chinese maritime commerce did not totally stop after Zheng He, that Chinese ships continued to participate in Southeast Asian commerce until the 19th century, and that active Chinese trading with India and East Africa continued long after the time of Zheng.
Moreover, revisionist historians such as Jack Goldstone argue that the Zheng He voyages ended for practical reasons that did not reflect the technological level of China.
However, the ban on maritime shipping did force countless numbers of people into smuggling and piracy. Despite the official neglect, the adventures of the fleet captured the imagination of some Chinese and novelizations of the voyages occurred, such as the Romance of the Three-Jeweled Eunuch in On his travels, Zheng He built mosques [ citation needed ] while also spreading the worship of Mazu.
He apparently never found time for a pilgrimage to Mecca but did send sailors there on his last voyage.
He played an important part in developing relations between China and Islamic countries. In modern times, interest in Zheng He revived substantially.
He is also mentioned in part of the main storyline of the first-person shooter game Far Cry 3. The stele was submerged and lost, but has been rebuilt.
In order to thank the Celestial Wife for her blessings, Zheng He and his colleagues rebuilt the Tianfei Palace in Nanshan, Changle county, in Fujian province as well prior to departing on their last voyage.
The three languages used in the inscription were Chinese, Tamil and Persian. Gallery of Admiral Cheng Ho in Malacca. Zheng He statue in the Quanzhou Maritime Museum.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Zhenghe disambiguation. This is a Chinese name ; the family name is Zheng.
History of Islam in China. Chinese geography and Mao Kun map. China portal Nautical portal Geography portal History portal Biography portal.
The Xuanzong Shilu 17 September entry reports that Zhang Funama delivered a seal, because the old seal was destroyed in a fire. Worlds Together Worlds Apart.
This time, going beyond the seaports of India, he sailed to Hormuz on the Persian Gulf. On his return in he touched at Samudra, on the northern tip of Sumatra.
On his fourth voyage Zheng He left China in After stopping at the principal ports of Asia, he proceeded westward from India to Hormuz. A detachment of the fleet cruised southward down the coast of Arabia , visiting Dhofar Oman and Aden Yemen.
A Chinese mission visited Mecca and continued to Egypt. The fleet visited towns along the east coast of Africa of what are now Somalia and Kenya and almost reached the Mozambique Channel.
On his return to China in , Zheng He brought the envoys of more than 30 states of South and Southeast Asia to pay homage to the Chinese emperor.
A sixth voyage was launched in to take home the foreign emissaries from China. In the Yongle emperor died. In the shift of policy his successor, the Hongxi emperor, suspended naval expeditions abroad.
Zheng He was appointed garrison commander in Nanjing, with the task of disbanding his troops. Zheng died in Calicut in the spring of , and the fleet returned to China that summer.
Admittedly, they did not, like similar voyages of European merchant-adventurers, lead to the establishment of trading empires. Yet, in their wake, Chinese emigration increased, resulting in Chinese colonization in Southeast Asia and the accompanying tributary trade, which lasted until the 19th century.
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Jan 1, See Article History. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Zheng He , the great admiral of the third Ming emperor of China, led a series of expeditions into the Indian Ocean.
On his first expedition —07 Zheng landed in Sri Lanka but withdrew hastily; he returned in , defeated the ruler Vira Alakeshvara, and took….
Yet, except for efforts to regain Dai Viet Vietnam as a province, these expeditions had no permanent military or colonial ambitions and….
Zheng He visited no fewer than 37 countries, some as far away as the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea, and the east coast of Africa almost as far south as Zanzibar,….
China , country of East Asia. It is the largest of all Asian countries and has the largest population of…. Foreign policy role in Ming dynasty In China: The dynastic succession In China: Help us improve this article!Europa league winners larger ships stretched meters or more la galaxy transfermarkt length. After correction of the year in the former two works, the order date would be 23 October derived cl finale 1999 the Taizong Shilu Dreyer62; Casino witten 888or 13 October derived from the Mingshi Duyvendak The pattern [of the wood] was black, with fine lines. The voyages were diplomatic, militaristic, and commercial in nature. Dreyer states that they did not make port at Ceylon or southern India, because they were sailing under favorable conditions and were running before the southwest monsoon. The Heretical Nature of Science. He returned to Nanjing in Technological developments in shipbuilding f1 2019 fahrer in the arts of seafaring reached new heights by the beginning of the Ming. Inthe fleet made a stop at northern Sumatra during the journey homeward from Hormuz. The Nine Walis ".
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